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Irankhodro weekly Magazine

Saturday, May 2010

15th year, new period

ISSN: 1735-1

No.: 247

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A smart system for air conditioning

 

Climate is the most important factor impacting humans’ survival in this planet and existing pollutants are the most significant enemies of human beings. Many scientists and researchers have studied and investigated different types of pollutants and their impact on climate and various solutions have been discovered. Particularly, during recent years fossil fuels consumed by automobiles are known to be the main polluting factor. In the field of automobile, such researches are globally extensive and new technologies are increasingly under development. In our country, numerous researchers are working on this issue. One of these researchers could register his invention in patent office at mid- 2008 that is the result of his hard work. The inventor of this system is Peyman Enayati, graduated from Sharif Industrial University in the field of metallurgical engineering majoring metal formation from Tehran to whom we interviewed:

  • What is the title of your patent?
  • Computer- controlled hot and cold air conditioning system
  • Please explain more about it.
  • This invention involves a method and device for producing hot and cold air in automobile controlled by a set of sensors, micro-processor and operators. This smart system is simple, efficient and cost effective that provides integrated ventilation for automobiles and it has single cold and hot air path. Its cold component involves multi-stage water evaporation with combined cycle and its hot component involves thermal generator of hot water and air. This air conditioning system is very simple, efficient and cost effective.
  • Is this invention categorized as modern, greed and environment- friendly technology?
  • This system is able to adjust external air moisture and prevent air dryness. By applying special filters covered with nano-silver covers and elimination of any adverse micro-organism, any odor, particle and pollutant, it provides clean air free from any pollution and particles.
  • What is the difference between your air conditioning system and those in the market?
  • Contrary to the common air conditioning system involved water evaporation for cooling and water flow into the panels is continuous, in my system water is poured on heat exchanger in certain intervals with the least amount; hence, in addition to water saving, the moisture content of environment is minimized. In this system, water flow frequency for evaporation and cooling is controlled by a micro- processor. Moreover, for optimum temperature and moisture in different climatic conditions, some temperature and moisture sensors and also a smart programmable microprocessor is included. In order to enhance the cooling ability of system, to control and reduce the moisture and to recycle the most amount of water evaporated in thermal evaporative exchangers, a series of thermal semi- conductor pumps are applied. Energy consumption of invented system equals one tenth of the energy consumed by gas evaporative systems.
  • It seems that one of the advantages of this idea is cool drinking water for automobile passengers; how this water is provided?
  • At the exiting air section of system, there is additional thermal exchanger that absorbs tiny particles of water added to the air at previous stage that reduce exiting air; secondly, clean water when passing through the pipes of this thermal exchanger is cooled down due to the cool air passing by and also due to the evaporation of tiny particle of water on its blades. This water that is highly clean because it passes through stainless steel ducts contained in thermal exchanger may be consumed as drinking water.
  • Does this device need to gain its energy directly from car engine?
  • This system does not need to make direct use of engine energy; so that if the engine is off, it continues its working. Its mechanism is very simple and small numbers of parts are contained in it; hence its maintenance is easy and low cost. Application of this system may lead to the reduction of fuel consumption in warm seasons and it helps to the environment health.
  • How much fuel consumption reduction is achieved in warm seasons?
  • According to investigations, a common air conditioning system (gas cooler) in an automobile consumes 2.5 – 4 kw. power. The efficiency of gasoline engines of automobiles is 25-30%. By consuming one liter of gasoline, we achieve 8.86 kw. power. Hence, for producing the power required for operating a gas cooler in automobile, we must consume 1.33 liter of gasoline per hour in average. If we consider the gasoline consumption of this automobile equal to 8 liter for per 100 km. distance (with 1600 cc. engine capacity) without using gas cooler, application of this air conditioning systems for similar distance may increase 16% of fuel consumption. It must be noted that in above calculations, reduction of engine efficiency due to the increase of its temperature is not considered. Experimental measurements have indicated that application of common air conditioning systems increases fuel consumption up to 20%.

The invented air conditioning system under the worst operating condition uses 400 Watt power in maximum that is 10% of the power used by common gas coolers in automobiles. Hence, if common systems are replaced by invented one, for per hour, 1.2 liter fuel would be saved. This saving in fuel consumption in large scales and during one year will be a big figure. For example, if there are 500,000 automobiles in a big city such as Tehran and these automobiles use their air conditioning system during warm days (120 days) and three hours per day; application of this patented system would lead to 216 liter fuel consumption saving.

  • Please explain other advantages of your system.
  • This patented system works based on multi- stage combined cycle;
  • It is equipped with smart computer- controlled system for optimization of energy consumption;
  • It is designed for different light, heavy automobiles, trains, etc.
  • No need to directly use the energy produced by car engines;
  • Fuel consumption reduction up to 20%, so that it improves environment health;
  • It is highly efficient and it uses low amount of energy compared to similar technologies;
  • Engine temperature is not increased, so that engine efficiency is improved and engine depreciation is reduced;
  • Providence of clean cold drinking water during warm season;
  • No need to apply refrigerant gases that pollute the environment;
  • It is equipped with automatic freshener system for output air;
  • It is equipped with nano-silver filters, active and cellulose carbon for absorption of particles and various pollutants and microbes;
  • It is equipped with ionizing system for filtering and degerming output air;
  • It is equipped with automatic controller and adjuster for moisture and temperature;
  • It has a simple structure, low price, easy maintenance and cost effective.
  • How much is its total cost and how is it installed in the automobiles?
  • Laboratory production cost of this system was 20,000,000 Tooman and the cost of its final prototype was 1,000,000 Tooman. If it is commercialized and replaces current coolers and heaters in automobile factories, it will cost 150 to 200 thousand Tooman. Of course, the compressor and condenser inside engines and its accessories will be removed.

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Metallurgist Magazine

Scientific and specialized magazine of metallurgy engineering students and graduates

No. 4; 1st year

 

 

The design and development of resisting welding equipment

The advantages of RSEW compared to resisting spot welding and pre-planned welding include:

  • Gas or liquid sealing fittings could be achieved;
  • Overly of plates is less than spot welds or pre-planned welds and tape width is less than the diameter of spot or appendix.

Limitations of RSEW, other than those in common with spot and pre- planned welding include;

  • The position of welds must be on a straight or curved steady state line;
  • Blockage along the path of electrode wheel must be avoided and or compensated in its design;
  • Sharp corners with sudden changes in environmental conditions along electrode length should be avoided;
  • The length of fittings developed in a longitudinal tape welding machine becomes restricted by the depth of machine neck;
  • Fatigue life of resisting tape welds is normally less than other welds developed by other methods of tape welding;
  • For plate thickness more than 1.8 inches, welding is more difficult than spot and pre- planned welding methods.

Components of the machine:

This system includes two parts:

  1. Welding part;
  2. Electronic control and cooling and hydraulic systems.

Welding section includes following sections:

a) Welding electrodes that include disc electrode (upper part) and blade electrode (below); the lower electrode is fixed and it remains motionless during the cycle of welding the working part on it. The upper electrode is movable and its drive force is provided by hydraulic system. In order to prevent excessive heating of electrodes that may reduce the quality of welds, both electrodes are equipped with cooling system working based on water flow. This system operates in closure.

b) Hydraulic drive system (hydraulic jack): in this system, the drive force of upper disc is provided by a hydraulic jack. The jack retrogresses to its primary position by a spring.

c) Guiding shaft: this guiding shaft directs the disc in its direction and also imposes welding pressure;

d) Cables transmitting the welding current to the upper electrode: 4 high voltage cables are used to transmit the welding current from transformer to the upper electrode;

e) Welding transformer: provides welding current. This transformer is able to adjust welding current.

f) Welding pressure adjusting system: it adjusts the pressure imposed by electrodes on the working part.

g) Micro-switch: Commands the beginning of welding cycle.

The other section of machine includes following components:

  1. Electronic control section: coordinates the performance of different parts of the machine and also it adjusts welding time that is a function of the length to be welded.
  2. Cooling system: includes water container and water- flow pump;
  3. Hydraulic system: entails following components:
  1. Hydraulic oil tank
  2. Hydraulic pump
  3. Hydraulic pump drive motor
  4. Hydraulic valve
  5. Hydraulic pressure transmitter hoses
  6. Input power fuses
  7. Main power contactors of machine and input current of welding transformer
  8. Water and oil level display screens: located at the left part of this section of machine.

Summary of samples preparation

In order to achieve mechanical properties of presented welds, two common tests, namely peel test and tensile test were applied:

  1. Tensile test

In order to conduct this test, some samples in rectangular shape sized 60 x 100 mm. were prepared. The characteristics of these samples are presented below.

 

Two samples are laid as indicated below and they are welded using resisting tape welding machine along MN line. Then, we cut about 10 mm. of the beginning and the end of the weld using guillotine and set them aside; this is done in order to reduce test error because the beginning and end of welds are not suitable in terms of quality and strength.

Then, we prepare four 20 mm. samples from remained 80 millimeter sample and they go under tensile test. As it is evident from the following figure, this test yields the shear strength of the welds.

  1. Peel test

For this test, some samples sized 8 x 60 mm. were prepared from different plates. The characteristics of these samples are as follows:

 

Overlay both plates on each other and weld them using resisting welding machine along PQ line. Then, we cut 10 mm. of the beginning and the end of weld by guillotine and set them aside; two 30 mm. samples are prepared from remained 60 mm. sample.

We bend the samples according to the following figure:

And test them using tensile test. It must be noted that in this test, tensile strength of welds are obtained.

Test description:

As referred in theoretical section, in resisting tape welding process there are three main variables:

  1. Welding pressure
  2. Welding current;
  3. Welding speed.

Above three variables must be adjusted such that for any thickness and type of plate the best weld quality is achieved in terms of appearance, strength and metallurgic properties. Since there was no practical information on achieving optimum conditions on the developed device and achieving suitable properties for the welds concerning different plates required having those information available, it was decided to prepare a welding experimental plan based on try and error. (Due to the shortage of facilities in preparing the plates with different thicknesses, this test was conducted only on low- carbon steel plates with different thicknesses. It is obvious that in the case of requiring more information about welding non- steel plates (stainless, etc.) similar welding plan may be implemented). In this experimental plan, constant welding pressure was considered and welding current intensity and movement speed of upper electrode were changed according to the consideration of planner, so that the number of variables is reduced and test process is simplified.

Current intensity selector

 

Welding speed

1

2

3

4

6.5

 

 

 

 

5.0

 

 

 

 

3.5

 

 

 

 

 

This test is separately conducted for different thicknesses of plates, so that for each thickness, optimum conditions are achieved. For calculating the shear and tensile strength of developed welds, the tests must be conducted once for peel test samples and again for tensile test samples. Given the above mentioned plan of tests on three different thicknesses (0.50 mm., 0.75 mm. and 1.00 mm.) of low- carbon steel plates, the results are presented in table 1.

Discussion of results:

As mentioned before, the purpose of present project is to achieve the optimum conditions for welding plates with different thicknesses and investigating the effect of such parameters as speed and current intensity of weld on the weld strength.

Optimum conditions for welding plates with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mm. plates: given table 1 and curves 1 to 12, optimum conditions for welding the plates with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mm thickness are presented as follows. It must be noted that in selecting optimum conditions both factors, namely strength (shear and tensile) and appearance quality are considered.

Current intensity selector

 

Welding speed

1

2

3

4

6.5

 

 

 

 

5.0

 

 

 

 

3.5

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                           

** due to the delicacy of the machine that is one of the important aims in designing and developing this device, welding the plates with thickness more than 0.75 mm. using this device is impossible at present, so optimum conditions for welding 1.00 mm. plates were not achieved.

We know that the heat produced in welding point is calculated by this equation:

In resisting tape welding, the above equation may be rewritten as follows:

 

Equation 1:

In above equation, “L” represents welding length, “V” represents welding speed, “I” represents welding current intensity and “R” represents total resistance of weld point including contact and parts resistance and “Q” stands for the rate of heat produced. Based on relation (1) and information of theoretical section, we investigate the effects of above parameters:

Table remarks: E = excellent; G = good; B = bad.

  1. The effect of welding speed on the strength and quality of welds under constant current: according to the curves 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 and explanations presented in theoretical section, until the reduction of welding speed under a constant welding current intensity does no induce molten projection from weld point- this may reduce the visual quality of weld- weld strength is increased and according to relation (1), reduction of welding speed under constant current intensity may increase the heat in excess of normal heat in the welding point and melting area extends from the intersection of two working parts to the external areas and due to the pressure of electrodes, molten material exits welding area. This may locally reduce the thickness of working part to the extent that may lead to the development of holes. As a result. The strength (shear and tensile) and visual quality of weld may drop off.
  2.  2) the effect of welding current intensity on the strength and quality of welds under fixed speed: given the curves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and the increase of welding current intensity under constant speed, if it does not induce molten projection from welding area, weld strength is enhanced. With the increase of current rate according to the relation (1), the heat developed in welding area is increased for each unit increase of constant speed, so that melt may project outward ad as a result weld strength (tensile and shear) and its quality may drop.

Conclusion:

The increase of welding current intensity and reduction of welding speed, until not leading to melt projection from welding area may lead to the increase of shear and tensile strength of weld and also suitable visual appearance.

References:

  1. Metals Handbook, 9th ed. Volume 6; “Welding, Brazing and Soldering.”
  2. Welding, by Smith.
  3. Welding technology, by Dr. Amir Hossein Kokabi.

Footnotes:

  1. MA. Student of identification and selection of metallic materials;
  2. Metallurgy engineer;
  3. Assistant professor of metallurgy engineering faculty;
  4. (FLASH WELDI G) (FW)

 

Roshde Javan 1

4th year, (1987- 1988 academic year); October.

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The hopes of tomorrow

Prepared by: Hossein Karimi

  

 

 

 

Dear sister and brother, now that our enemies witness their failure in overcoming the faith of our steadfast people on their way toward the rightfulness, they try to impose more economic pressure upon us in order to disturb their firm determination and will. But it is you who combat them with your innovative and powerful hands and your artistic hands and destroy all their unfounded beliefs and promise a bright future in the bloody history of your glorious revolution; a future in which Iranian people make Iran and the powerful arms of Muslims move the great wheels of economy.

Since “KAD Program” contribute in enhancement of your innovative and creative minds, in this edition and some next editions we will talk to the students who have succeeded to develop innovative projects under KAD Program. In this edition, we introduce our innovative brother, Peyman Enayati and at the end one of his electronic devices is described that brought him a prize in the number 1 circuit design competition of Science- Electronics Magazine.

Question: when and how did you notice your talent in development of innovative plans?

Answer: Since I was an elementary school student I was interested in technical work in different fields. This interest combined to my severe curiosity reached maturity when I entered guidance school. At those years I enhanced my experience by investigating electrical and mechanical devices and in some cases I designed some simple devices. Since textbooks of school were not enough to meet my sense of curiosity and many of my questions remained unanswered I attended theoretical- applied courses of radio and television during summer holidays after the end of guidance school. At the end of summer holidays, I attended the exam of Labor Ministry and I could obtain related official diploma. Fortunately, the next academic year it was approved to include KAD Program in high schools. I passed KAD program in Payam Radio and Television Company, so that a good opportunity was provided for me to actualize those theories I had learnt during summer holidays. One of the important factors in my progress was KAD Program.

Question: please explain some of your innovations.

Answer: I am going to explain about some of my electronic and mechanical works:

  1. All- digital deck, tuner, amplifier and mixer device is one of devices made by me and most of its internal circuits were designed by me; in some cases I used prepared boards. By including this device in a suitable container I could compete to its foreign similar sample and in addition to its high quality, its appearance is also aesthetically pleasant.
  2. Since I needed a laboratory feeding source to continue my research, I designed a laboratory feeding source with zero to thirty Volts and zero to four Ampere current. This feeding source is protected against overload and output short circuit and it could be used with three types of outlet.
  3. In order to protect the houses and automobiles, I designed a digital coded lock that is usable just through a special card. The password or code of digital lock could be changed if necessary.
  4. Another device required in my electronic researches was frequency meter. By designing a digital frequency meter with measurement ranges of 1, 10 and 100 kilohertz and 1 and 10 megahertz with three digital figures this requirement was also met.
  5. Given that power shutdown and connection imposes adverse effects on electrical devices, I decided to develop a protector for refrigerators and freezers. After being connected to the power supply, this device prevents the electrical device from being on for 4.5 minutes, so that it is protected against adverse effects of power supply outage and its fluctuations after connection; moreover, this device is under mass production and it is available in the market.
  6. Concerning mechanical works on mobile components of robots including mobile arms and their drive system, I have some plans that are ready to be operated.
  7. Another useful mechanical device I have made is oval plotter. With its small size and low price, this device is able to plot different types of ovals with certain values of a, b and c. using bigger values, it could be used on the black or whiteboards. On what follows, I explain electronic answering machine that won a prize in the circuit design competition of Electronic Science Magazine.

Characteristics of machine

This machine is able to sense the audio signals produced from clapping from more than 10 meter distance and in response it sends audio signals. This machine is a large size sample of audio-sensitive key chain holders found in market. By introducing it in a suitable container, it could be used for children entertainment and other applications; because this device always acts based on your command and whenever you clap it responds from 10 meter distance. In responding, this device is able to produce a tone for 1-7 times. This value is adjustable as desired.

The current used for the whole circuit during silence is less than 10 mAh and under audio signal condition, it reaches to 20 mAh and this feature makes it to work for a long time with a 9 Volt battery continuously. The device is fed by a 9 Volt battery. The device responds just to those audio signals that their frequency is within the limits of that of a normal clapping. The total number of parts contained in this device is 22 parts. The size of printed circuit is 7.5x 4 cm.

Figure 1: complete circuit of answering machine

Figure 2: the design of printed circuit fiber of machine (both ICs are installed on one socket with 16 bases).

 

Theory and description of circuit performance

The first stage is receiving the audio signals and recognizing them. Normally, output signals of dynamic and charcoal microphones, etc. are weak and require a few level of amplification with high amplification coefficient that this may increase the parts used in the device. Hence, a sensitive condenser microphone that includes an operational amplifier is used that acts as an audio- sensitive sensor. Audio signals resulted from microphone are coupled with base T1 through tantalum capacitor C1 (for achieving more sensitivity for the device). This is the first stage of amplification that includes T1, R1 and R2. The signals amplified are applied for base T2 through capacitor C2. The sensitivity of device to a certain audio signal depends on the values of R2 and C2. The next stage is to operate a sound generator using output signal of collector base T2. For this purpose, I used an IC. 555. I chose that because trigger input depends on the triggering of this sensitive IC. Moreover, this IC operates like a timer and its function is to control the number of pulses produced by IC2 of 555 type. This is controlled by P. in other words, IC2 is fed through IC1 output (base 3) and under silence this IC and the next stages don’t elicit any current from generator. Then, IC2 output in turn feeds T3 & T4 that are responsible to produce and enhance output audio signal and tone; at the end, this signal is applied to the loudspeaker in the form of pulse with a frequency equal to the frequency of IC2 pulse.

Guidance on assembly, development and application of this device:

Assembly of device is performed on a printed circuit on a piece of fiber sized 75 x 40 mm. on which the design of copper section and also guidance on assembly is attached. In order to assembly IC1 and IC2, it is better to use socket. For the purpose of saving, the design of printed circuit is such that for both ICs one socket with 16 bases could be used jointly. The microphone used in above circuit has three connections that the design and guidance on its wires is presented in assembly guidance. Also, the order of T1 to T1 bases is attached. It is better to use loudspeaker of 8 ohm type and 0.2 Watt type; the smaller the diameter of its plane, the better its output sound and when choosing its container, less space is required.

  • Scientific contest No. 1

By responding to three following questions, participate in our scientific context No. 1. Please pay attention to following points when answering the questions:

  1. Write your full name and level of your education;
  2. Write the date;
  3. If you answer correctly to all questions, you would be our special winner.
  4. Send the answers within 2 months after the publication of magazine to the address of Roshde Javan Magazine, section Young Innovators, related to the scientific contest No. 1.
  5. All participants who answer correctly to all questions would receive prize and the bets answer would receive our special prize.

Figure 3: guidance on the assembly of circuit and the shape of bases from below

  1. What is meant by terms “overload” and “short circuit”?
  2. For what purpose do C1 and C2 capacitors are contained in electronic responding circuit and what is their effect on the frequency response of the circuit?
  3. What is robot and what are its applications?
  4. Please explain the transistors of electronic responding circuit in terms of the type (PnP or nPn) and material (silicon or germanium)?
  5. For what purpose does the power provided to the circuit by battery during silence is consumed?     

 

Keyhan Bacheha Magazine

New period, No. 324, Tuesday

1986/01/28

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Inventors and innovators

The first device invented by me was a simple radio. At that time I was so happy because of making that radio. Now, I want to tell you how you can make a simple radio yourself.

This radio has a very simple design. For this purpose, you must have these items available: a coil used instead of antenna, a crystal diode, a crystal phone and charcoal core (ferrite coal)

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Figure of a simple radio

 

Method: at first, provide a piece of cardboard and wrap it around charcoal core such that charcoal core moves inside it easily. Then, take a wire with 0.3 mm in diameter and wrap it around the cardboard for 80 regular runs inside which charcoal core is placed. Provide a variable capacitor and connect the head of each coil to the middle and lateral connections of capacitor. Now, prepare the diode. You may know that diode has two connections namely, cathode and anode. Connect anode to the one end of coil and capacitor. The other end of diode which is cathode must be connected to the crystal phone and the other end of phone must be connected to the other end of capacitor and coil.

Your simple radio is ready. In order to enhance its sound, antenna insert should be connected to a long wire or TV antenna.

By rotating variable capacitor, you can catch one or two radio stations.

Thank you for teaching how a simple radio could be made. Please introduce yourself and tell us how long have you been performing electronic work and who has encouraged you in this way?

I am Peyman Enayati and it is seven years I am doing electronic work; that is when I was in first grade in guidance school I encountered technical magazines and by studying them I got familiar with simple electronic devices, so I entered the world of electronics. My parents often encouraged me, but t was my grandfather who guided me through this way. He was an experienced radio and television repairman. Whenever he came to our house to repair something I sat beside him and enthusiastically looked at his hands that connected the wires together. My grandfather noticed my interest in electronics and he encouraged me to follow my interest.

 

Mr. Enayaty tell us what important devices have you made up to this date?

Devices I have made include: frequency meter, refrigerators protective device being under production, coded locking device, deck and stereo.

What is the most important device you have made and what is the function of frequency meter?

The most important device I have made is deck and stereo because it features a complicated system; in fact frequency meter function is measurement of frequency and it is mainly used for adjustment and repair of electronic devices.

What book have you studied and what is your suggestion to the interested ones?

I have studied many books, but progress in electronics is not achieved just through studying, but practical work must be exercised together with scientific studies. Most importantly, never give up by failures. For example, I have a box in my house in which there are a lot of defective devices, but I will never withdraw.

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